• Patrick Power

How to use 'thus' in academic writing


'Thus' is a versatile word and a favourite with writers. However, it can also be quite slippery and is frequently misused. In this post, we explain how to use it properly in your academic writing.


1. ‘Comma + ‘Thus’ + ing. This is a very common construction, which is used to introduce the result of an action:


Two years ago, COVID-19 lockdowns began in earnest, thus bringing in an era of home working for white collar workers.


2. ‘Thus’ + comma meaning ‘for this reason’ or ‘because of this/that’. Usually, ‘thus’ would start a new sentence.


For the last two years, in person meetings have been all but impossible. Thus, we have all become Zoom and Teams experts.


You could also separate the two clauses with a semi-colon but not with a comma.

OK For the last two years, in person meetings have been all but impossible; thus, we have all become Zoom and Teams experts.


X For the last two years, in person meetings have been all but impossible, thus, we have all become Zoom and Teams experts.



3. ‘And thus’ in the middle of a sentence, meaning ‘in this way/by this means’.


Vladimir Putin’s Russia invaded Crimea in 2014 and thus started a conflict that has been burning for the last eight years.


Note that there is no comma before ‘and thus’.



We hope this helps with your writing! If you have any questions, please put them in the comments below.







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